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Skirmishers are used to harass the enemy with missile fire, but stay out of close combat.
Skirmishers are allowed to shoot before they move. They can shoot even before they move on initiative. When they shoot before they move they can not shoot in the shooting phase and must neither charge nor lend support in the upcoming close combat phase. The drive back is still resolved at the end of the ordinary shooting phase. When a unit that has been shot at by skirmishers is charged, it will not be driven back, but has still to roll the appropriate number of dices to see if it is confused.

Warbands are less well organized and trained than regular units. Especially strong is the effect of numbers and success and casualties on the units morale.
If all units of a brigade are classified as Warband and the brigade consists of at least 3 units, the brigades command value is increased by 1. Remember: a command roll of 11 or 12 is always a fail.
If a Warband has to roll for drive backs without loosing a stand, the unit rolls 1 dice less than usual. If a Warband has to roll for drive backs after loosing at least one stand, the unit has to roll 1 dice more than usual.
Each stand of a Warband gets +2 attacks instead of the usual +1 when the Warband pursues. Each stand of a Warband looses 1 attack when the Warband fights an pursuing enemy (i.e. the Warband retreated).

The Phalanx is a dense formation of pike equipped troops. The formation is very strong to the front which looks like a hedgehog, but rather vulnerable to flank attacks. Please note that the unit does not have to be in Phalanx formation and that some of the rules are used only if the unit is in Phalanx formation.
The unit automatically adapts the Phalanx when the unit ends it's move in column formation.
Units trained in using the Phalanx may make full moves only when evading, being driven back or retreating or, when it started and ended the movement in column formation, did not change it's facing and did not move move more than half it's forward movement to the sides (I.e a unit moving 15 cm ahead, may not move more than 7.5 cm to the left or right). Against the standard rules this limitation is also used for charges.
A unit that started a charge in phalanx does not have to bring as many stands into contact with the enemy as possible, but can opt to stay in phalanx formation, but the movement restrictions apply.
If the unit is in Phalanx than any stand that would (using the standard rules) support another stand of the same unit will not support that stand, but will attack the front stand's enemy just as if they were in contact. The front stand can not receive support by the second rank attacker, but the second rank attacker can be supported as it counts as fighting. (I.e. a charging (3 stand) unit in Phalanx would have 6 attacks plus 1 support.
Cavalry will not charge the front of a unit in Phalanx formation.
Infantry can not charge the front of a unit in Phalanx formation by initiative only if given orders.

Roman Legionaries can form a Testudo. The Legionaries at the front, back and sides hold their shields to the outside and the Legionaries in the center raise their shields above the heads. This formation provided improved protection against shooting attacks.
A unit in column formation can form a Testudo by passing a command test. The unit will not move, but form the Testudo. The unit stays in Testudo formation until it charges (so stand and shoot is resolved as if in open), it is charged, enters fortified or dense terrain or abandons the column.
A unit in Testudo formation treats all shooting attacks as if the unit would be in defended terrain. A fortified unit or units in dense terrain can not form a Testudo.

A unit in open terrain can form a shieldwall.
To adopt the shieldwall formation the unit has to pass an ordinary command test just as if the unit would be ordered to move. But instead of moving the unit forms the shieldwall.
The unit stays in shieldwall formation until it becomes confused or moves for whatever reason (drive back, retreat, iniative or commanded move, making way, etc.).
All attacks (close combat and shooting) that cross the front edge of the stands in shieldwall formation get a -1 to hit penalty. (I.e. An attack hits on a 5+ instead of 4+).

Some cavalry units are equipped with camels instead of horses. Camels are cheaper and can carry heavier armoured riders. But more important in game terms is that horses unaccustomed to camels will be terrified by them. All units (friend and foe) equipped with horses (i.e. cavalry, chariots) are subject to terror by units (i.e. not characters riding camels) equipped with camels.

Elephants cause terror.
If a Elephant is driven back or retreats into any stand it will not wait for the soldiers to make way it will run them down in panic. Before the unit makes way or denies to make way or before the Elephant is stopped or killed by an blocking enemy stand or combat the Elephant will attack that stand. It is resolved as 3 normal close combat attacks. The wounds inflicted are added to any other wounds that have been or will be inflicted that phase (combat or shooting). If this happens in the shooting phase the wounds inflicted count towards the wounds for determining the number of stands lost (as said before), but do not add dices the the ones rolled for drive back.

Chariot runners
Infantry trained to ride on and fight along chariots. If a brigade consists of at least as many chariot stands as chariot runner stands, than the movement of the chariot runners is increased to 30 cm. The movement increase is only granted if the units still form a brigade (with at least one chariot stand per runner stand) at the end of the movement (This is only relevant if the brigade or parts of the brigade charge).


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